Egyptian nuclear regulator issues permit to build unit 1 of first nuclear plant in Egypt

The Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) has issued a permit for the construction of unit 1 of Egypt’s first nuclear power plant (NPP) at El Dabaa, according to a release by the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom.  

Egypt and Russia signed an intergovernmental agreement in 2015 under which Russia will help build and part-finance the first Egyptian NPP to be owned by the country’s Nuclear Power Plant Authority (NPPA). 

The El Dabaa NPP, to be located on the country’s Mediterranean coast about 130 km northwest of the Egyptian capital, Cairo, will have four Russian-designed VVER-1200 pressurised water reactors of 1,200 MW capacity each, making Egypt the only country in the region to have a state-of-the-art Generation III+ reactor. 

“Today (June 29, 2022), we were granted the permit to build the first unit of the first Egyptian nuclear power plant. Today, we etched in gold Egypt joining the ranks of countries building nuclear power plants after over 70 years waiting for this dream to come true,” NPPA Board Chairman, Dr. Amged El-Wakeel, said in a statement. 

“Rosatom will build a reliable state-of-the-art NPP with reactors based on the Russian VVER-1200 design of the innovative Generation III+. It meets the world’s highest safety standards, and successfully operates in Russia. El-Dabaa NPP will be the first nuclear power plant of this generation on the African continent. It will further secure the country’s regional technological leadership,” said Rosatom Director General Alexey Likhachev. 

This permit, along with excavation works at the site, are the prerequisites for the start of the main stage of construction. Earlier this year, Rosatom had announced that preparatory work has started for the construction of the El Dabaa NPP.  

In April 2022, a delegation from Rosatom’s engineering division, ASE Group, led by the company President Alexander Lokshin, along with the NPPA Board Chairman, Dr. Amged El-Wakeel, visited the construction site of the El-Dabaa NPP. The delegation included senior officials, as well as the project teams of both ASE and the NPPA.   

According to Rosatom, the delegation visited the NPP construction site and inspected the preparation of the pits for power units 1 and 2, the facilities of the construction base, and the concrete-mix unit. The preparatory work on the site includes construction of infrastructure facilities and a docking facility which will receive large and heavy equipment. 

Although the Egyptian nuclear power program was started in 1954, and its first research reactor ETRR-1 was acquired from the erstwhile Soviet Union in 1958, it is only now that work has started on building the country’s first nuclear power plant. 

The El-Dabaa NPP is being constructed under a package of contracts which entered into force on December 11, 2017. As per the contract, Rosatom will not only construct the power plant but will also supply nuclear fuel for the whole life cycle of the NPP, as well as provide assistance to the Egyptian partners in the training of personnel and in support of operations and service during the first 10 years of its operation. Under a separate agreement, Rosatom will build a special storage and will supply containers for storing spent nuclear fuel, the statement said.

Rosatom projects in the Arctic will create 6,000 jobs by 2030 

The Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom’s investments in the development of Russia’s Arctic region through ongoing projects will help in creating around 6,000 jobs via investments of more than 700 billion rubles by 2030, according to Rosatom.  

This was stated by Rosatom’s special representative Vladimir Panov at a conference session last week titled “Investment Projects in the Arctic: Incentive Regimes” held at the recently concluded St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) 2022. 

“A third of these funds is the renewal of the icebreaker fleet. Another quarter are mining projects – a lithium project, Sovyinoye, Pavlovskoye. In addition, Rosatom is equipping the NSR (Northern Sea Route) facilities, building port infrastructure, and developing transit”, a Rosatom statement said.  

“In 2028, Russia’s first ground-based small nuclear power plant (SNPP) will be put into operation.  It will provide at least 55 MW of environmentally friendly energy for the development of the Kyuchus field and nearby settlements. Each ruble invested in the SNPP construction project in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) brings to the Russian economy on average 2.6 rubles at the construction stage and 2.4 rubles at the operation stage”, the statement added. Yakutia is located in the Arctic region.  

Earlier this year, Russia commissioned a new nuclear-powered icebreaker named Sibir, the first in a series of such icebreakers being constructed under its “Project 22220”, which will help keep the Northern Sea Route open for year-round shipping through the Arctic 

The Northern Sea Route via the Arctic is the shortest route between East Asian and Western European ports. The nautical distance between Shanghai and Rotterdam via the NSR is expected to be 30 percent shorter than the Suez Canal route, saving travel time by 10–12 days. Similarly, the distance between Yokohama and Rotterdam will be reduced by half. 

Huge deposits of uranium found in India’s Rajasthan state

After Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, huge deposits of uranium have now been found in India’s Rajasthan state, following which preparations are in full swing to start mining in the Khandela area of Sikar.

Large deposits of uranium and associated minerals have been found on a widely spread area of 1086.46 hectares which has opened both employment and investment avenues for Rajasthan.

Around 12 million tonnes of uranium and other elements are expected to be lying deep down under this area, officials said, adding that “the Rajasthan government issued LOI (Letter of Intent) for mining in the perspective of making official entry of the state into the uranium mining sector.”

Dr Subodh Agrawal, Additional Chief Secretary, Mines and Petroleum Department of the state said: “Rajasthan Government issued a letter of intent to Uranium Corporation of India for mining of uranium ore in Rohil, Khandela tehsil near Sikar. After Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, huge deposits of uranium have been found in Rajasthan. Uranium is considered one of the rarest minerals in the world. It is a very valuable mineral for nuclear power. Uranium Mining has opened doors for investment, revenue and employment while taking Rajasthan on the world screen.

The officials confirmed that Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) will invest about Rs 3,000 crore and around 3,000 people will get direct or indirect employment.

Dr Subodh Aggarwal also said that till now uranium mining was being done in Jadugoda of Singhbhumi in Jharkhand state, as well as in Andhra Pradesh state. After completing the necessary formalities, mining shall start in Rajasthan also and other ancillary industries will also be set up in the state on the basis of products produced with uranium.

Apart from nuclear energy, uranium finds use in defence, medicine, photography and other segments.

Heat exchanging apparatus manufactured for unit 5 of Kudankulam NPP in India 

The fabrication of the heat-exchanging apparatus, also known as the relief tank, for the under-construction unit 5 of India’s Kudankulam nuclear power plant (KNPP) has been completed and is ready for shipment to India, according to the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom. 

Rosatom is the equipment supplier and technical consultant for the KNPP being operated by the state-run Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL). The KNPP units 1 and 2 of 1,000 MW capacity each were commissioned in 2013 and 2017, respectively. As per an intergovernmental agreement, Rosatom is similarly collaborating in the construction of four more units at Kudankulam – 3, 4, 5 and 6 – of 1,000 MW capacity each.   

A Rosatom release earlier this week said that the relief tank, manufactured by its subsidiary ZiO-Podolsk, is one of the key pieces of equipment for an NPP. 

“It is intended for condensation of steam coming from the pressure compensator and other equipment of the primary circuit in the modes of heating and other operating modes of reactor”, the statement said. 

The apparatus is made of austenitic chromium-nickel steel. It weighs 15 tonnes, is 8 meters (m) in length, around 2.5 m in diameter, and 4 m in height, the statement added. 

According to Rosatom, ZiO-Podolsk has earlier manufactured equipment for the reactor and turbine halls of the KNPP’s operating units 1 and 2, as well as several other items such as steam generators, high pressure heaters, heat-exchanging modules, pipelines and filters.

Kudankulam nuclear plant in India supplied with TVS-2M fuel enabling longer fuel cycle 

India’s Kudankulam nuclear power plant (KNPP) in Tamil Nadu has been supplied the first batches of the new TVS-2M nuclear fuel, enabling an elongation of the fuel cycle from 12 to 18 months for its operating Russian designed VVER-1000 reactor units 1 and 2, according to an announcement made by the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom subsidiary, TVEL Fuel Company. 

A TVEL statement last week said that after refueling in July 2022, the KNPP unit 1 will start operating in the 18-month cycle, instead of the 12-month cycle permitted by the currently used UTVS fuel. 

“With this, TVEL will be fulfilling the agreement with India’s Department of Atomic Energy / Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) on implementation of TVS-2M nuclear fuel with 18-month operating cycles for KNPP”, the statement said.  

Rosatom is the equipment supplier and technical consultant for the KNPP being operated by the state-run NPCIL. As per an intergovernmental agreement, Rosatom is similarly collaborating in the construction of four more units at Kudankulam – 3, 4, 5 and 6 – of 1,000 MW capacity each. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in 2013 and 2017, respectively. 

As compared to the UTVS fuel earlier supplied for the two operating Kudankulam reactors, the TVS-2M fuel assemblies have a number of advantages, making them more reliable and cost-effective, the statement said. 

“First, it is the rigidity of a bundle — because of the welded frame, the fuel assemblies in the reactor core retain their geometry, the spacer grids protect the fuel rod cladding from fretting wear (preventing from depressurization), and the additional spacer grid makes fuel assemblies more vibration-resistant”, the statement said. 

“Secondly, the new fuel has increased uranium capacity — one TVS-2M assembly contains 7.6 percent more fuel material as compared to UTVS. Besides, the special feature of the Kudankulam fuel in particular is the new generation anti-debris filter ADF-2, efficiently protecting fuel assemblies”, it added.  

According to TVEL, operation in longer fuel cycles also enhances the economic efficiency of a plant since reactors have to undergo stoppage and refueling less frequently, allowing the power units to produce more electricity. Moreover, the power plant needs to purchase less fresh fuel, and as a result, has to deal with smaller amounts of spent nuclear fuel. 

“We offer to our foreign clients the solutions which have proved successful at the Russian nuclear power plants. TVS-2M fuel is efficiently operated in 18-month fuel cycles at Rostov NPP and Balakovo NPP in Russia, as well as at Tianwan NPP in China”, TVEL’s Senior Vice President for Research and Development, Alexander Ugryumov, said in a statement  

“Fuel bundles with ADF-2 anti-debris filters have also shown good results at Rostov NPP. Besides, all VVER-1000 reactors in Russia operate at higher capacity, 104 percent of the nominal, and this experience is also a matter of interest for nuclear power plants operators abroad”, he added.  

Ugryumov had earlier told Nuclear Asia that the TVS-2M fuel assembly offers increased uranium capacity, improved heat reliability and enhanced operational safety. While UTVS are packed with 490 kg of enriched uranium pellets, the TVS-2M bundles weigh 527 kg, allowing a nuclear plant operator a lot of options in terms of an extension of a fuel cycle length from 250 up to 510 effective full-power days, he had said. 

Welding completed of main circulation pipeline in unit 1 of Turkey’s first nuclear plant  

The work of welding the main circulation pipeline in unit 1 of Turkey’s first nuclear power plant (NPP) at Akkuyu, being constructed with the assistance of the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom, was completed on May 25, 2022.  

According to a Rosatom statement, the work of welding all the 28 joints of the main circulation pipeline, begun on March 19, 2022, took 68 days to complete. 

The main circulation pipeline connects the major equipment of a nuclear power plant – reactor, steam generators, reactor coolant pumps – and is a part of the primary circuit of an NPP.   

“On the occasion of the main circulation pump (MCP) welding completion, a ceremony was held at the Akkuyu NPP construction site, to award the 29 workers and specialists who were directly involved in the welding and control operations”, the statement said.   

“On completion of the welding works on each seam, non-destructive testing operators assessed the quality of the welded joints using ultrasonic, capillary, and other control methods”, it added.  

Addressing the team of the welders during the award ceremony Rosatom subsidiary Akkuyu Nuclear’s CEO Anastasia Zoteeva said: “All the works, starting from pipeline assembly, welding, high-temperature processing of seams and including quality control of the welded joints, have been conducted at a high professional level. We can say for sure that we have taken a significant step towards our main goal, commissioning of Akkuyu NPP Unit 1.” 

The welding of the main circulation pipeline is one of the key stages in the construction of the reactor unit.  

“During the NPP operation, water at a temperature up to 330 degrees Centigrade continuously circulates through the MCP. Only special pipes with 70 mm wall thickness can withstand such loads, therefore, pipeline welding is a complex and high-tech operation, which is subject to the most stringent requirements. The completion of the welding operation will be the starting point for open reactor circulation tests”, an earlier Rosatom statement had said.  

The statement said the installation of the main circulation pipeline includes not only assembly and welding of pipes, “but also high-temperature treatment of joints followed by a special build-up welding on the inside of the pipeline”. This provides corrosion resistance to the pipeline, increases durability of welded joints and ensures the pipeline’s operating lifetime of at least sixty years, as stipulated by the project design.    

Last year, the reactor pressure vessel was installed at unit 1 of the Akkuyu NPP. Rosatom had also announced that construction work had started on units 3 and 4 of the Akkuyu NPP. A Rosatom statement had said that building and installation works were being carried out simultaneously at the construction sites of all four Akkuyu NPP power units, making it the world’s largest nuclear construction site with four power units being built simultaneously.  

The statement had also said that the Akkuyu NPP is the first project in the global nuclear industry that is being implemented according to the Build-Own-Operate model.  

According to Turkish Energy and Natural Resources Minister Fatih Dönmez, “construction and commissioning of the plant will provide 10 percent of Turkey’s electricity needs. It is also an important contribution to the preservation of our ecology: nuclear power plants are a source of environmentally friendly and uninterrupted electricity. The project is a driver for the development of industry, economy, employment, and also contributes to the development of many related industries.”       

Turkey plans to bring the 1,200 MW unit 1 online in 2023. With three more similar units, the Akkuyu NPP will have a total capacity of 4,800 MW. All the units are to be equipped with the Russian designed Generation III+ VVER-1200 reactors. 

Unit 1 of latest South Korean nuclear power plant attains criticality  

South Korean utility Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) announced last week that the first unit at its Shin Hanul nuclear power plant (NPP) has attained criticality, or sustained chain reaction, for the first time, signalling the start of operations.  

Shin Hanul is South Korea’s 27th NPP and is to be equipped with two APR-1400 reactors of 1,400 MW capacity each. A KHNP statement said that the first unit is scheduled to be connected to the grid in June 2022. 

“In the future, Shin Hanul Unit 1 plans to produce electricity for the first time early next month after undergoing a performance test of the power plant system with safety as the top priority,” the KHNP said. 

Business Korea reported citing a KHNP official that full-scale commercial operations of the first unit are expected to start in the second half of the current year. 

South Korea’s Nuclear Safety and Security Committee (NSSC) gave its approval for the start-up of Shin Hanul unit 1 on July 9, 2021, and the KHNP began loading the fuel assemblies into the core of the reactor shortly thereafter. Following the completion of fuel loading KHNP announced in October 2021 that it was conducting reactor physics and systems testing under normal operating temperature and pressure conditions. 

The APR-1400 is a South Korean designed and developed pressurised water reactor (PWR) with a design life of 60 years. It is an evolutionary development of the 995 MW capacity OPR-1000 reactor, featuring improvements in operation, safety, maintenance and affordability.  

KHNP said that Shin Hanul 1 is the first power reactor in South Korea to achieve technological independence through indigenisation of core facilities, such as the reactor coolant pump and the plant instrumentation and control system. 

Earlier, the first two APR-1400 units in Korea – Shin Kori NPP 3 and 4 – began commercial operations in December 2016 and September 2019, respectively. Construction of two more APR-1400 units – Shin Kori 5 and 6 – began in April 2017 and September 2018, while these are expected to be commissioned in March 2023 and June 2024, respectively.  

Last month, South Korea has elected the new and explicitly pro-nuclear President Yoon Suk-yeol, who has vowed to reverse the former President Moon Jae-in’s policy of phasing out nuclear power.  

The APR-1400 design was approved in Europe in 2017, and in the US in 2019. In the first export order for this design, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has chosen the APR-1400 reactors for its first NPP located at Barakah. The Barakah second unit was connected to the grid in March 2022 and the two units are now supplying a combined power of 2,800 MW to the UAE grid. Four reactors are planned to be installed at the Barakah plant.  

First sub-assembly of ITER plasma chamber lowered into machine well 

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), or the world’s largest nuclear fusion project, achieved a major machine assembly milestone earlier this month, with the first sub-section of the ITER plasma chamber being lifted out of tooling and lowered into the machine well, according to an ITER announcement.  

The ITER machine, the assembly of which began in July 2020 in France, is designed to replicate the fusion power of the sun to enable generation of clean unlimited energy. When light atomic nuclei fuse together to form heavier ones, a large amount of energy is released, which fusion reaction is to be housed in the ITER plasma chamber.  

ITER’s plasma chamber, or vacuum vessel, will be formed from nine wedge-shaped steel sectors that measure over 14 metres in height and weigh 440 tonnes. The section of the ITER machine which has been lowered represents one-ninth of the toroidal plasma chamber.  

This particular vacuum vessel sector subassembly, that has been lowered from the assembly hall into the tokamak pit, consists of silver-coated thermal shields and two D-shaped vertical superconducting electromagnets called toroidal field coils. Eight other similar assemblies will form the complete chamber and surrounding toroidal field coil superstructure.  

The “tokamak” (derived from the Russian words for “toroidal magnetic confinement”) machine, which will produce thermonuclear fusion power, relies on magnets to propel and shape its plasma stream. It initiates plasma current, as well as drives and shapes the plasma during operation.  ITER expects to generate its first ultra-hot plasma in late 2025. 

“The first-of-a-kind operation was spectacular at many levels. The sheer weight of the component plus rigging—1,380 tonnes—came the closest yet to the nominal lift capacity (1,500 tonnes) of the double overhead bridge crane in the ITER Assembly Hall. The teams achieved millimetre-level tolerances in the positioning of a component that towers six storeys high and weighs the equivalent of four fully loaded Boeing 747s”, ITER Organisation said about the successful operation. 

The ITER vacuum vessel, with an interior volume of 1,400 cubic metres, is unique — it can contain 840 cubic metres of plasma, which is ten times larger than that of the largest tokamak currently operating in the world. Once assembled, the ITER vacuum vessel will have an outer diameter of 19.4 metres, a height of 11.4 metres, and weigh approximately 5,200 tonnes. With the subsequent installation of in-vessel components such as the blanket and the divertor, the vacuum vessel will weigh 8,500 tonnes. 

ITER is a 35-nation partnership composed of the European Union, the UK, Switzerland, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the US. Each partner contributes in-kind hardware to support their share of project construction while sharing all of the science and technology. The world’s largest science project is intended to demonstrate that fusion power can be generated on a commercial scale.      

“Many project actors have had a part in today’s successful milestone. Vacuum vessel sector Number 6, at the centre of the assembly, and associated thermal shielding was manufactured and delivered by the Korean Domestic Agency. India fabricated the in-wall shielding inside the double walls of the sector and Russia supplied the upper port. The toroidal field coils (TF12 and TF13) were procured by the Japanese Domestic Agency”, an ITER Organisation statement said.  

“Korea designed and built the upending tool, the giant sector sub-assembly tools, the lift attachment closest to the load, and the column tool in the pit that will support the vacuum vessel during welding, while the European Domestic Agency supplied the overhead bridge cranes and the next-in-line rigging attachment that allows the cranes to work together”, it said.  

“This successful lift operation will be celebrated across the ITER community as a major assembly milestone, bringing the project another step closer to First Plasma. The component is currently suspended only 50 centimetres above its supports in the assembly pit, as the assembly team carries out the final positional operations. It will then be lowered to its supports, arriving ‘home’ after a long and complex journey”, the statement added.  

ITER’s realising of a self-heating plasma is expected to generate 10 times more heat than is put in. Fusion provides clean, reliable energy without carbon emissions, with minute amounts of fuel and no physical possibility of an accident with meltdown. The fuel for fusion is found in seawater and lithium, while it is abundant enough to supply the world for millions of years. A football-sized amount of this fuel is equivalent to around 10,000 tons of coal. 

Indian nuclear operator officials visit Kalinin plant in Russia to study spent fuel management 

Representatives of India’s state-run operator Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) visited the Kalinin nuclear power plant (NPP) in Russia earlier this month with a view to study the management of spent nuclear fuel after its removal from the reactor core. 

According to a statement from the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom, the NPCIL officials were accompanied by representatives of the Rosatom subsidiary Tenex in their visit to the Kalinin NPP, which took place over May 3-5 to witness the management of spent nuclear fuel during the overhaul work undertaken at the second unit of the NPP.   

“This visit was organized in order to familiarise NPCIL representatives with the practical experience of the Russian nuclear industry in handling the transport of the packaging (TUK), and the export of spent fuel assemblies (SFA) with the cooling pond of the NPP to the processing plant. The visit is part of the JSC Tenex project on cooperation in the sphere of safe management of spent nuclear fuel for the Kudankulam NPP”, Tenex Deputy Director General, Artemov Elena, said in a statement.     

The first two 1,000 MW units at India’s Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), being built by NPCIL with the assistance of Rosatom, have been connected to the grid in 2013 and 2016, respectively, while work is in progress to construct four more 1,000 MW reactors – units 3, 4, 5 and 6.    

Rosatom said that the NPCIL representatives were shown the entire “process, from receipt of the empty container, placing it in the soaking pool in the reactor building, the fuel loading in the TUK using a console machine overload, until the final stage of their loading onto the transport platform.” TUK is the transportation packaging set consisting of casks to transport used fuel.  

“For us the experience of Russian colleagues is very important because, in the future at the Kudankulam NPP, we will conduct similar operations. We were impressed by the high level of skill and speed of the specialists of Kalinin NPP. I got a lot of new information that will provide the safe management of spent nuclear fuel at the initial stage of the backend”, said a senior executive engineer at NPCIL, Vinod Tiwari. 

Meanwhile, the Indian Parliament was informed last month that the process to obtain environmental clearance for setting up a storage facility for the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Kudankulam NPP units 1 and 2 is currently in progress.  

Replying to a member’s query in the Upper House of the Indian Parliament, Atomic Energy Minister Jitendra Singh said the spent nuclear fuel storage, also known as the Away from Reactor (AFR) facility, anywhere in the country are set up only after obtaining all statutory approvals, including environmental clearance from the Environment Ministry.  

Moreover, safety clearances are obtained from the regulator and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) to ensure that the spent fuel does not pose any radiological hazard to people and the environment nearby.   

According to the Minister, the AERB is currently carrying out the design safety review of the proposed AFR facility.   

He said environment clearance for the KNPP units 3-6, including storage facilities for the SNF, was granted by the Environment Ministry after careful consideration, following the due process.   

Singh also informed Parliament that the AERB has given its consent to establish the spent fuel facility for KNPP units 3 and 4.   

The facilities for the storage of SNF in the premises of a nuclear power plant, until it is sent for reprocessing, are designed with a comprehensive approach to safety to withstand extreme natural events like earthquakes and tsunamis with provisions of large operational safety margins for safe, sound and reliable performance.  

“These are designed, constructed and operated as per regulatory requirements and subjected to regulatory reviews and audits, which ensure robustness in safety at all stages of the facility, ensuring that there is no adverse impact on plant personnel, the general public or the environment”, the Minister said.  

Such facilities are already functioning at the Tarapur NPP in Maharashtra state and at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan, which are operating safely without any impact on personnel, the public and the environment, he added. 

Reactor coolant pump internals fabricated for unit 5 of India’s Kudankulam nuclear plant

The fabrication of four guide vanes have been completed, which will be mounted in the housings of the reactor coolant pump sets to be installed in unit 5 of India’s Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), according to a statement by the Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom.  

The KNPP, located in India’s Tamil Nadu state, is being built by the state-run Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) with the assistance of Rosatom, who are the equipment suppliers and technical consultants for the project consisting of six reactor units. 

According to the statement released last week, each guide vane consists of upper and lower discs, between which 13 guide blades are welded. The guide vanes refer to the reactor coolant pump set (RCPS) internals, which are to be mounted in the RCPS housings and are designed to direct the coolant flow inside the pumps. 

The reactor plant equipment of one power unit includes four reactor coolant pump sets, which are being manufactured in Russia by the Rosatom machine building division Atomenergomash’s subsidiary, AEM Technologies. 

“The RCPS housing is a first safety class item. At a nuclear plant it ensures coolant circulation in the primary circuit and operates under pressure of 160 atmospheres and temperature of 300 degrees”, the statement said.  

The KNPP units 1 and 2, equipped with VVER-1000 type reactors of 1,000 MW capacity each, have been connected to the grid in 2013 and 2016, respectively. These are currently India’s largest operating nuclear power units.     

The first concrete was poured into the foundation plate of the reactor building for the fifth unit of the KNPP on June 29, 2021, which marked the official commencement of the third phase of construction involving units 5 and 6. The construction of unit 6 was launched on December 20, 2021, with the first concreting in the foundation slab of the reactor building.  

Phase 2 of the KNPP construction involving units 3 and 4, to be equipped similarly with the Russian-made VVER-1000 reactors of 1,000 MW capacity each, are currently at an advanced stage.