There are many, but the most important thing is that there is no oxygen consumption and emission of pollutants, toxic and carcinogenic substances, as well as “greenhouse” gases in the process of nuclear power generation. By contrast, the amount of physically unavoidable waste from TPPs is of great magnitude.
It should also be taken into account that serious environmental damage is caused by “traditional” thermal energy through the construction and operation of the associated infrastructure (oil and gas pipelines). This factor does not apply to the nuclear industry.
The aggregate effect of negative clinical, sanitary and environmental implications associated with any technology can be expressed by the so-called “external cost”, the cost of remediation measures it takes to eliminate adverse effects. According to the assessment of Russian experts, the “external cost” of various energy production technologies can be evaluated as follows (euro cent/kWh): coal – 15, fuel oil – 4.5, gas – 3, nuclear power – 0.2.